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Qualitative vs. Quantitative

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Qualitative research methods in public relations and marketing communications

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Qualitative Research Methods Public Relations by Daymon Christine Holloway Immy - AbeBooks

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In all numbers, the oral download qualitative research methods in was styled in method to identify the injury to the paper as our evidence p.. At the same time, public relations and marketing communications are turning their attention to notions of dialogue and collaboration — communicating with people rather than to audiences. Key point Public relations and marketing communications are concerned with managed communication. The two disciplines are increasingly interested in coordinating communication through relationships which are developed and maintained by collaborative dialogue.

While the aim is a worthy one, it is complicated by the increasingly diverse environment in which communicators operate today. The popularity of the Inter- net has resulted in rapid global communications where communications teams and audiences are spread across the world. No longer can communicators expect their audiences to speak in the same language or to hold similar beliefs and values.

They listen to them, seeking to discover their opinions, motivations, expectations and experiences. They recognize that there is more than one perspective on any issue and that stakeholders will use their own perspectives to interpret company messages. This indicates a willingness to appreciate that others may not see things in the same way that they do. It is not until they have reached this point that they can engage successfully in conversations that use the language of stakeholders. The act of being mindful, or putting yourself into the shoes of others, as Fill recommends, is precisely the goal of most qualitative researchers.

Their interest is to under- stand the world of lived experience from the point of view of those who live and work in it. They are concerned with subjective reality, that is, what events, objects and others mean to other people. In the past, many scholars and practitioners of public relations and marketing communications have avoided the idea of engaging with and participating in the world of those with whom they wish to communicate. The dominant worldview has been that numbers talk and that qualitative inquiry is suitable only for early, exploratory research.

The latter, however, has failed to utilize the full potential of qualitative methods. That managed communication is a fairly new academic discipline may account for its over- riding concern to develop universalistic principles from quantitative studies. There has been little interest by researchers to do research that entails personal involvement with people in natural environments. We would add that the processes and con- texts in which those messages and meanings are created have also been ignored. In a context of relationship marketing.

Statistical information about customer perceptions of product and service quality could become merely a valuable by-product. An emerging interest in the micro, the particular and the context — such as, how individuals infuse the advertising of particular companies with mean- ings and incorporate these into their lifestyles — is beginning to be seen to be as much of interest as the universal. This leads to new types of research questions being asked — such as what is important to individuals rather than how infor- mants respond to what is important to researchers or companies.

In this way, there is a willingness to explore the agendas of research participants. Insights and the generation of working hypotheses directly from the data are of interest rather than the measurement of large numbers or the evaluation of pre- determined concepts. In future, research into managed communication will more conscientiously accommodate different styles of inquiry so that both qualitative and quantitative approaches will co-exist on an equal footing.

This may mean the increasing application of multiple strategies in a single research project such as using document analysis, observation and interviews where one approach comple- ments another , or it may mean looking at the same issue in different ways, using qualitative research for one type of question and quantitative for another. Most interestingly, though, will be the acceptance and deployment of qualitative research as a valid, stand-alone means for understanding patterns and connec- tions in the complex and unexplored, such as how an event or action occurs, how it functions in social contexts, and what it means for participants concerned.

Not all research questions call for a qualitative approach. What is the communicative action that is being performed? How do they do it? What does it mean to them? How do they interpret what it means to others? How do we interpret and document how they act, what they tell us about what they know, and how they justify their actions? What is the relation of us to them, of self to other? The research question, therefore, drives your methodology. Your worldview determines your research question.


Once you have decided on a question that demands a qualitative approach, you can begin to make choices about your research orientation — a case study, grounded theory study, ethnography, dis- course analysis or phenomenology — and the various methods you will apply: interviews, focus groups, observation, document research, projective and enabling techniques, or critical incident analysis. These we go on to discuss in the following chapters. The interpretive stance focuses on the constructed nature of social reality as seen by those involved in it.

The realist perspective regards reality as an objective, observable entity which is independent of those involved in it. Questions suitable for qualitative research include how something occurs, how it functions in its context and what it means for participants. The different stages of her research are outlined in Example 8.