The U. In March , Johnson made the decision—with solid support from the American public—to send U. By June, 82, combat troops were stationed in Vietnam, and military leaders were calling for , more by the end of to shore up the struggling South Vietnamese army. Despite the concerns of some of his advisers about this escalation, and about the entire war effort amid a growing anti-war movement , Johnson authorized the immediate dispatch of , troops at the end of July and another , in In contrast to the air attacks on North Vietnam, the U.
Westmoreland pursued a policy of attrition, aiming to kill as many enemy troops as possible rather than trying to secure territory. Heavy bombing by B aircraft or shelling made these zones uninhabitable, as refugees poured into camps in designated safe areas near Saigon and other cities. Even as the enemy body count at times exaggerated by U. Additionally, supported by aid from China and the Soviet Union, North Vietnam strengthened its air defenses. By November , the number of American troops in Vietnam was approaching ,, and U. The later years of the war saw increased physical and psychological deterioration among American soldiers—both volunteers and draftees—including drug use , post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD , mutinies and attacks by soldiers against officers and noncommissioned officers.
Between July and December , more than , U. Bombarded by horrific images of the war on their televisions, Americans on the home front turned against the war as well: In October , some 35, demonstrators staged a massive Vietnam War protest outside the Pentagon. Opponents of the war argued that civilians, not enemy combatants, were the primary victims and that the United States was supporting a corrupt dictatorship in Saigon. On January 31, , some 70, DRV forces under General Vo Nguyen Giap launched the Tet Offensive named for the lunar new year , a coordinated series of fierce attacks on more than cities and towns in South Vietnam.
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Taken by surprise, U. Reports of the Tet Offensive stunned the U. With his approval ratings dropping in an election year, Johnson called a halt to bombing in much of North Vietnam though bombings continued in the south and promised to dedicate the rest of his term to seeking peace rather than reelection. Despite the later inclusion of the South Vietnamese and the NLF, the dialogue soon reached an impasse, and after a bitter election season marred by violence, Republican Richard M.
Nixon won the presidency. In an attempt to limit the volume of American casualties, he announced a program called Vietnamization : withdrawing U.
Saigon Revisited: Researching South Vietnam's Republican Era (1954-1975)
In addition to this Vietnamization policy, Nixon continued public peace talks in Paris, adding higher-level secret talks conducted by Secretary of State Henry Kissinger beginning in the spring of The North Vietnamese continued to insist on complete and unconditional U. The next few years would bring even more carnage, including the horrifying revelation that U. After the My Lai Masscre , anti-war protests continued to build as the conflict wore on. In and , there were hundreds of protest marches and gatherings throughout the country.
On November 15, , the largest anti-war demonstration in American history took place in Washington, D. The anti-war movement, which was particularly strong on college campuses, divided Americans bitterly. For some young people, the war symbolized a form of unchecked authority they had come to resent. For other Americans, opposing the government was considered unpatriotic and treasonous.
Bombing Makes People Mad
As the first U. Nixon ended draft calls in , and instituted an all-volunteer army the following year.
There are many folders on RVN military operations during the war, including documents pertaining to the T? As with the first series, there are numerous reports on internal politics and security that were produced by various RVN intelligence agencies both military and civilian.
There are also many documents on RVN foreign relations, including some materials on key meetings with US leaders such as the Honolulu conference of , documents relating to the multiparty peace talks which took place in Paris between and , telegrams to and from RVN embassies world-wide, and some of Thi?
Not surprisingly, the overwhelming majority of the documents in the Office of the President Collection are in Vietnamese.
While many RVN officials spoke and wrote French fluently, most RVN documents and official correspondence were drafted in Vietnamese, if only because of the government's desire to emphasize its independent status. Researchers will occasionally find materials written in English or French scattered throughout the collection—especially in folders containing correspondence with American agencies and groups—but these comprise a small percentage of the total.
The reindexing of this collection, the second to be included in the Archives' reorganization project, was completed in the summer of This series is similar to the Office of the President collection in that it contains documents that were produced in many different corners of the RVN bureaucracy. Unlike the Presidential files, however, this collection is organized in a single series that covers the entire republican era. The twenty-volume finding aid lists 31, folders, organized into eleven sections.
The chronological distribution of materials within the Office of the Prime Minister collection reflects the shifting status of the position between and The collection thus contains a substantial number of documents dating from Di? According to Presidential Order Number 1, issued on the latter date, Di? As a result, this collection contains very few documents produced between October and Di?
- ANIMA (Yaoi)?
- Accessibility links;
- Guy Lesueur Guadeloupe?
- WHKMLA : The South Vietnamese Economy During the Vietnam War, .
- Communication and Organizational Crisis?
In November , the Premiership was reconstituted as a separate office, a status it maintained even after Nguy? Thus, the bulk of the documents in this collection date from the period , and the materials from are particularly extensive. The finding aid for this collection shows that it contains documents on a wide variety of subjects. There are records of government cabinet meetings from various periods of RVN history, as well as the minutes of the "Government Council" which was set up in the wake of Di?
Also available are various official directives and correspondence issued by the Prime Ministers' office, including several folders of telegrams labeled "secret" m? Many of the documents pertain to the official travels of various prime ministers, including both internal and international tours. The "organization" section of this collection contains a cluster of more than personnel files; each file contains information on an individual who worked for the RVN state in some capacity. The "Inspections" section contains many reports by the Inspector General for Administration and Finance; these will likely be relevant to any future research into the notorious corruption that plagued the RVN during its latter years.
There are numerous documents pertaining to RVN foreign affairs; these include not only materials relevant to US-RVN relations, but also those dealing with various aspects of South Vietnam's relations with other countries in Asia. There is information here about RVN policies and decisions concerning education, cultural affairs, health, youth and sports, information, labor and social programs.
In general, there seems to be substantial overlap in many areas with the Office of the President collection. Depending on the topic and chronological scope of their inquiries, researchers may find it useful to consult both collections.
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These additional collections apparently include the records of all of the various ministries and agencies of the republican regime. A portion of these ministerial and agency records are currently available to researchers, even though they have yet to be included in the ongoing re-indexing project. For example, some researchers have made use of a collection of materials produced by the Ministry of Communication and Public Works B?
Since this Ministry was established during the colonial period, the materials it contains date back to the pre-World War II-era; however, many of the documents date from the period. Nam Vi?
During the B? After he came to power in , Di? Unfortunately, many of the ministerial records likely to be of greatest interest to historians of the Vietnam War—such as the records of the RVN Defense and Interior Ministries—are not yet open to researchers. The next such collection that is slated to become available contains materials pertaining to the American aid mission in South Vietnam; that collection is expected to be opened to researchers sometime in Archive officials have declined to speculate about how long the entire reindexing process will take, but the relatively short time in which the Office of the President and the Office of the Prime Minister collections were completed is encouraging.
Scholars can thus expect the coming years to bring numerous additional releases of documents—and hopefully new insights into the structure and function of the RVN state.
Vietnam War: Causes, Facts & Impact - HISTORY
Conducting research in Vietnam requires patience, planning, good humor, and perseverance. To gain access to the Archives, researchers must arrive in Saigon with a student or research visa. Such a visa can only be obtained via sponsorship by a Vietnamese academic or research institution. Researchers must therefore locate a willing sponsor in advance of their research visit, and then work with the sponsoring institution to get the visa processed and issued via a Vietnamese embassy or consulate. After arriving in Vietnam but before visiting the archive for the first time, researchers should ask their sponsor to write a letter of introduction gi?
This standard-issue document is a formality, but it must be observed. The photos will be used to produce a special reading card th? Researchers must pay a nominal fee to receive their cards currently about 15, d? Once the necessary permissions have been secured, the researcher can consult the Archives finding aids and begin making requests for particular folders of documents.